Travertine stone is one of the natural, decorative, and luxury stones. This stone is one of the popular stones inside and out of the country for interior and exterior façade of buildings because it has wonderful and particular wavy lodes in its surface due to the porosity founded while sedimentation. Travertine formation is due to calcareous sedimentation and has different porosity degrees. The pores existing in travertine, forms a pure, unmixed, and resistant surface by using the best technology and using processed filling materials. Travertine does not change color in light and its filled pores prevent slippery. Also, they are heat and sound insulation. Due to travertine`s calcareous character, it forms pure and good bonding with sand and cement mortar. Travertine has high firmness, and can be provided as wave less travertine, wavy travertine, and huge cuts in different colors such as white, cream, dark and bright cream, dark silver, nescafe, brown, red, orange, and lemon-colored. In choosing travertine, you must consider that the brighter the color of stone, the better the quality of the stone. Its most common use is in modern buildings in classic method. Chalipa stone industry is capable of producing variant travertine stones in eight thousand to ten thousand square meters, slab and tile sizes monthly, and has a very long history and activity of exporting these stones. Travertine is a sedimentary porous stone which is formed from precipitating sediments of calcareous caves and sediments of floor of sea and rivers. This stone possesses a very different and natural color spectrum that because of its beauty and resistance, it is a very good option for interior and exterior building facades.
What is travertine stone?
Travertine is a porous calcareous stone which is classified as sedimentary rocks in geology, and it is used as a decorative stone. It is formed by precipitating sediments that are remained from going water in hot water sources, caves, and floor of the seas and rivers. This stone has high resistance against climate changes, and because of its color variety, it is the best option for interior and exterior façade as decorative. Travertine is mined in large and raw sizes in nature, and after entering stone factory, is cut in different sizes and becomes ready for different uses. One of its considerable advantages is the existence of pores in this rock that allows volume changes while expansion and condensation, because it has enough space for it; it leads to breakage prevention and suitable heat and sound insulation, as well. High grinding, luxury and beautiful texture, surface pores for friction, suitable life time, cutting ability in different shapes, low heat absorption, and appropriate price are travertine`s wonderful advantages. There are some disadvantages as non-uniform pattern and color, lower cold resistance, breakage possibility in freezing point, high water absorption, and no resistance against acid rains. Its special weight is 2500 kg/ .
Different travertine stones
Travertine is classified in different kinds depending quality, cut, and color spectrum. Each of these kinds is processed and produced for a special use.
Coloring: Travertine is in dark and bright colors as cream, chocolate brown, white, walnut, lemon, red, silver, and yellow in nature. In technical engineers` idea and sale market, as the color is brighter, and the surface porosity is more, the stone has higher price. Travertine sedimentary stones are very beautiful and this beauty can already be seen in its cuts. Its cause is due to iron oxide dispersion in internal layers of the stone.
Quality degree: Quality is very determinative in providing travertine, and it has direct relationship with the type of mine of travertine. From biggest internal travertine mines in Iran, Azarshahr, Haji abad, Kashan silver, Takab silver, Maku red, Atashkouh, Abbas abad, Darreh bokhari, Abianeh, and Agha Mahdi can be mentioned.
Type of cut: Travertine is mined as big and raw stones, and in processing and cutting stage, it is cut as slab size and width of 40, 50, 60 cm and free length. (The standard internal size of travertine for building façade is 40 cm.) It can be cut as wave less and wavy. Slab sizes are used in luxury buildings and export and the width of 40 cm is used inside the country. Its processing methods are: brush, polishing, tumble, and hond.
Factors such as coloring, quality degree, mine type, size, and cut determine the price of travertine. Providing and processing of this stone for different uses sometimes are done by filling the surface pores. This stone is porous, and its several pores are filled with filling materials in order to increase the quality and resistance of the stone. In recent years, cement and concrete were used in filling the pores of stones, which resulted in the low price of travertine, and no popularity in internal market. Nowadays, resin is used as an alternative for old fillers, which has resulted in more beauty and resistance of the stone, much more demand and remarkable price increase in the market.
Travertine as building façade stone
Best definition of travertine in use is: building façade stone. This stone is very beneficial for external building façade due to suitable resistance in different climate changes and extreme radiation of the sun, so it is very remarkable in stone market. The thickness of travertine cut for external building façade is 1-2 inches. If there is colder climate, thicker cuts of stone must be used. The soft and different coloring of this stone results in better acceptance for different tastes, so customers can more easily choose the color they want. Existence of several pores in the surface of stone results in suitable usage in pool walls in order to avoid slippery, and also in stairs in order to prevent falling. Other uses of this stone are: fireplace, sculpture, stone vases, walls and floor in internal façade, toilet and bathroom, stone barbecue and other similar uses.